Manual The initiation, propagation, and arrest of joints and other fractures

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The growth of joints is a fundamental issue in structural geology and related disciplines since joints exert a profound influence on the strength.
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USP true Modelisation de l'interaction de fractures hydrauliques dans des reseaux de fractures complexes. USA1 fr. EPB1 fr. CNB fr. AUA1 fr.

The Initiation, Propagation, and Arrest of Joints and Other Fractures

CAA1 fr. RUC2 fr. WOA1 fr. USB2 en. Corrective scaling of interpreted fractures based on the microseismic detection range bias correction. Method of performing integrated fracture and reservoir operations for multiple wellbores at a wellsite. Method of integrating fracture, production, and reservoir operations into geomechanical operations of a wellsite. USA en.

Initiation Propagation Termination - Free Radical Reactions

USB1 en. Gas reservoir evaluation and assessment tool method and apparatus and program storage device. USA1 en. System and method for predicting fluid flow characteristics within fractured subsurface reservoirs. Modeling hydraulic fracturing induced fracture networks as a dual porosity system. Procede de gestion de l'injection de fluides pour recuperation d'hydrocarbures. GU, H. ET AL. Interfacial debonding occurred in an intermittent manner involving sequential events of initiation, propagation and arrest.

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Noori et al. The results demonstrated that surface patterns enabled an increased plastic energy dissipation and an higher peeling resistance.

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Cordisco et al. The results indicated delayed crack initiation, intermittent crack propagation and an improved toughness because of the increase area available for bonding. More recently, Maloney and Fleck 22 analyzed the response of architected adhesive joints. Metal substrates with square-wave patterned interfaces, obtained using water-jet cutting, were bonded with an adhesive. Their work demonstrated that, compared to the baseline planar interface, the patterns modify the development of damage within the adhesive layer and lead to increased energy dissipation.

Although much labor intensive, molding techniques have been also deployed on polymeric substrates. Pendergraph et al. Yukimoto et al. Mixed mode fracture tests carried out on adhesive bonded joints highlighted the efficiency of the patterns in elevating the fracture toughness. Matsuzaki et al.

Cosgrove, J. W. (John W.) [WorldCat Identities]

An increased strength, as determined in butt joint tests, demonstrated the effectiveness of the method. The analysis of previous related works highlights the beneficial effect of either planar or non-planar surface patterns on interfacial strength and bond toughness. The aim of this study is to extend the scope of these works by using an alternative top-down patterning technique, which leverages on the use of pulsed laser irradiation. Pulsed laser sources can induce significant melting, re-solidification and vaporization of the target material thereby enabling the simultaneous modification of surface topography and chemistry Moreover, current lasers are provided with high precision beam positioning systems which ensure the ability to engrave surface patterns with accurate geometrical control and, as a result, to generate interfaces with heterogeneous surface properties.

It follows that unlike previous methods e. However, there is a need to unravel the relationships between the shape and area fraction of laser treated material and the corresponding mechanical behaviour. This is an inherently brittle material system which entails scientific and engineering interest because of its widespread use for photovoltaics, flexible electronics, integrated circuits, to list a few 2 , 10 , 27 , 28 , Laser process effectiveness is strongly related to the characteristics of the laser beam, e. From this standpoint, nanosecond pulsed fiber lasers have been successfully used to machine several engineering materials e.

In the present work, surface patterns were engraved on copper through nano-second pulsed Yb-fiber laser irradiation. Substrates were subsequently bonded with structural epoxy adhesive and loaded under peel in a displacement-controlled experiment. The results discussion is largely framed in terms of effective peel force and absorbed energy needed to sever the sample.

Finally, the mechanistic analysis of crack growth across the patterned interfaces required an associated computational effort. We propose herein an approach based on the use of 3D finite element simulations with cohesive surface elements. Mechanical tests were carried out using the T-peel test coupon 31 whose overall dimensions are given in Fig. Four pattern types were engraved over the baseline sanded copper substrates represented by arrays of circles C , ellipses Ea and Eb and rhombs R.

The radius r of each treated area as a function of the area fraction is given in Fig. The local replacement of a weak sanded interface by one of much stronger adhesion enables the introduction of crack pinning sites. However, two distinct sets of samples of type C were also included in the analysis to ascertain the effect of A f , i. The obtained patterned interfaces feature a periodic variation of both surface topography and chemistry which were investigated by means of XPS and SEM analyses.

Laser processing was carried out in the x -direction. The distance h quoted in the figure indicates the minimum distance between the outmost points of two laser treated areas. SEM images are shown in Fig. Sanded surfaces are characterized by a random distribution of ridges and grooves that can promote an increase in surface area and roughness. Laser treated surfaces are inherently textured and provided with sub-micron scale morphological features, including characteristic sharp asperities and cavities in the recast material. The resulting interface may be able to retain the adhesive and resist debonding through micro-scale mechanical interlocking.

Surface oxidation was also ascertained by means of XPS analyses. The largest peak signal was identified to be metallic copper, although the peak is also compatible with cuprous oxide, i. Cu 2 O; indeed, as noted in 32 the two compounds have very similar binding energies and are difficult to distinguish.

As a result of laser irradiation the relative intensity of the two peaks is modified and the CuO peak prevails. Copper hydroxide is presumably removed by laser irradiation. It has been reported that the formation of CuO exerts a beneficial effect on the strength of adhesive joints. It improves wettability and, in turn, increases the degree of interfacial contact with the adhesive SEM images of a sanded and b laser treated substrates. The baseline sanded surface is characterized by multiple micro-scale asperities, while the laser treated features trench-like surface patterns in the x -direction, i.

The inserts show schematics of the locations taken for SEM imaging. The surface patterning strategy proposed herein modifies the fracture energy landscape across the interface giving rise to a toughness contrast. Indeed, the modifications of surface chemistry and topography elevate substantially the fracture toughness.

We firstly analyze the effect of area fraction of circular inclusions on global response and dissipated energy required to sever the samples. Typical steady state peeling forces versus applied displacement are reported in Fig. The top and bottom dashed straight lines indicate the average steady state load measured in samples with laser treated and sanded interfaces, respectively.

1 Introduction

The fluctuation of the remote applied peel load for the patterned samples reflects the occurrence of crack initiation , propagation and arrest i. The excellent agreement suggests the attainment of a global steady state peeling regime in which the opening displacement is globally as average over one cycle twice the crack advance The sudden load increase is associated to crack trapping within the laser treated area. The highlighted portion of the global response indicates a typical load fluctuation observed when the crack traverses a single period of the pattern.

The insert shows the estimated initial and final position of the front. The dashed lines indicates the average peel forces of homogeneous unpatterned laser top and sanded bottom interfaces which were obtained by averaging the steady state values over the crack growth. The dashed line show the prediction obtained using the rule of mixture.

Normalization is done with respect to the energy dissipated in baseline sanded samples.

The Initiation, Propagation, and Arrest of Joints and Other Fractures

When the front approaches the tougher region the applied load increases until it reaches a peak pinning regime. The peak force is also referred to as effective peel force 14 , that is the remote load required to advance further the crack. It is speculated that these slopes are associated to initial front pinning and subsequent crack penetration within the tougher region.

The results obtained at the lowest area fraction represent an exception since a direct abrupt load transition to a lower bound was observed. The results reported in Fig. It should be noted that while the minimum peel load corresponds to crack growth within the weak sanded interface, it does not match the force needed for peeling from a homogeneous sanded interface.

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This an indication of the occurrence of rate effects which, in turn, may depend on the spacing between consecutive inclusions, i. It is indeed in that area of the interface that, because of the toughness decrease, the crack speed increases.

In particular, h is approximately equal to 6.